In modern history, some situations of persistent conflict may be brought to a ceasefire before being dealt with by a peace process in which a series of discreet measures are taken on both sides to achieve the goal of peace desired by both parties and the signing of a treaty. What is a peace treaty? It is a legal agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a state of war between the two sides. Peace treaties differ from other international documents that control conflicts in that they are often the culmination of international discussions on peace and seek lasting solutions by creating the conditions for peace. A peace treaty is not the same as a capitulation in which one party agrees to renounce arms; or a ceasefire in which the parties agree to temporarily suspend hostilities; or a ceasefire agreement in which the parties commit to cease hostilities but do not agree on the long-term conditions for peace. However, one or all of these documents may precede the signing of a peace treaty between two parties. Conflicts could initially end with the capitulation of one party or a compromised ceasefire agreement. This could be followed by an armistice agreement, as in the case of the Korean War in 1953. In such circumstances, the permanent conditions for the settlement of conflicts may be definitively laid down in a formal peace treaty. Peace treaties can also be distinguished from peace agreements. Peace treaties generally concern separate sovereign nation-states.

In recent years, however, the international community has been forced to rethink how peace treaties could be used to resolve not only conflicts between nations, but also conflicts within nations. Peace agreements that perform legal functions similar to those of a peace treaty are often negotiated between warring parties within a nation. A peace treaty between the Hittites and the Egyptians after the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC. J.-C.C is generally considered to be the first recorded. A copy of this Treaty shall be issued at United Nations Headquarters. Many nations formally resolve conflicts through peace treaties, with each treaty tailored to the conflict and the parties involved. Peace treaties have common objectives, provisions and formats. This allows us to analyze them as a kind of legal document. One of the tasks of the United Nations in peace processes is to conduct post-conflict elections, but overall they are believed to have no, if any, negative effect on peace after a civil war. [7] [8] [9] Probably the first recorded peace treaty, although rarely mentioned or recalled, was between the Hittite Empire and the Hayasa-Azzi Confederacy around 1350 BC. It is best known that one of the first recorded peace treaties between the Hittite and Egyptian empires was concluded after the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC. J.-C.

(see Egyptian-Hittite Peace Treaty). The battle took place in present-day Syria, with the entire Levant at the time disputed between the two empires. After an extremely costly four-day battle, in which neither side gained a significant advantage, both sides claimed victory. The lack of resolution led to new conflicts between Egypt and the Hittites, with Ramses II conquering the city of Kadesh and Amurru in his 8th year as king. [12] However, the prospect of another protracted conflict between the two states eventually convinced their two leaders, Hatusiliš III and Ramses, to end their dispute and sign a peace treaty. Neither side could afford the possibility of a protracted conflict as it was threatened by other enemies: Egypt faced the task of defending its long western border with Libya against the invasion of Libyan tribes by building a chain of fortresses stretching from Mersa Matruh to the Rakotis, and the Hittites faced a greater threat in the form of the Assyrian Empire. had conquered “Hanigalbat, the heart of Mitanni, between the Tigris and the Euphrates,” which was previously a Hittite vassal state. [13] It is important to focus on power-sharing, election observation and nation-building strategies in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the structuring of post-civil war peace agreements. While each issue may seem small in itself, the success or failure of a particular national peace agreement usually depends on the success of those provisions.

Most peace agreements address three main concerns: procedure, content and organization. After the Five Years` War between Cushite Candah, Amanirenas and August of Rome, a peace treaty was concluded in 21/20 BC. J.-C. [15] [16] [17] Mediators were sent by Kush to Augustus, who was in Samos at the time. [18] An agreement between the two parties was mutually beneficial. The Kushites were an independent regional power and refused to pay tribute. The Romans also sought a quiet southern border for their desperately needed supplies of Egyptian grain, with no constant war obligations, and welcomed a friendly buffer state in a border region haunted by invading nomads. The Kushites also seem to have found nomads like the Blemmyes to be a problem.

[19] The conditions were ripe for an agreement. During the negotiations, Augustus granted Cushite`s envoys everything they demanded, and also cancelled the tribute previously demanded by Rome. [20] Premmis (Qasr Ibrim) and the areas north of Qasr Ibrim in the southern part of the Thirty-Mile Strip] were ceded to the Cushites. The Dodececachoinos were established as a buffer zone and Roman forces were withdrawn to the ancient Greek Ptolemaic border at Maharraqa. [21] The Roman Emperor Augustus signed the treaty with the Cushites on Samos. .